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James Clerk Maxwell's original EM work and theory
Posted on Sunday, December 11, 2005 @ 18:42:37 GMT by vlad

Science Posted by Leslie R. Pastor in the NEC forum: Leslie,

I'm terrible with exact facts and need my personal library which was destroyed, so pardon me if I don't have this exactly correct. I remember that James Clerk Maxwell had developed 5 postulates or theories. After his death 3 of the leading scientists of the time published Maxwell's findings but only 3 of the 5 were published.

Somebody said that had the missing 2 been published that we would have had anti gravity 50 years after his death! We only know of the current and voltage in a wire and the magnetic and electrical fields resulting; but Maxwell discovered two other essential fields surrounding current moving in a wire. I have always wanted to find those original papers (even a bad copy would do); and find out for myself instead of relying on all these rumors and half-truths.

Philip N. Ledoux

Good Morning Tom [Bearden],

Since you are one of the most knowledgeable sources regarding James Clerk Maxwell, may I defer Mr. Philip N. Ledoux's question to you?

All the Best,

Leslie R. Pastor


Maxwell's original theory was published as:

James Clerk Maxwell, "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field," Royal Society Transactions, Vol. CLV, 1865, p 459. The paper was orally read Dec. 8, 1864.

It is also published in The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell, 2 vols. bound as one, edited by W. D. Niven, Dover, New York, 1952, Vol. 1, p. 526-597. Two errata are given on the unnumbered page prior to page 1 of Vol. 1.

In this paper Maxwell presented his seminal theory of electromagnetism, containing 20 equations in 20 unknowns. His equations of the electromagnetic field are given in Part III, General Equations of the Electromagnetic Field, p. 554-564. On p. 561, he lists his 20 variables. On p. 562, he summarizes the different subjects of the 20 equations, being three equations each for magnetic force, electric currents, electromotive force, electric elasticity, electric resistance, total currents; and one equation each for free electricity and continuity. In the paper, Maxwell adopts the approach of first arriving at the laws of induction and then deducing the mechanical attractions and repulsions.

A copy of the original Maxwell paper can easily be obtained for about $15 from Amazon etc. It is:

James Clerk Maxwell, The Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field, edited by Thomas F. Torrance, Wipf and Stock Publishers, Eugene, Oregon, 1996. This booklet, which sells for about $15, contains Maxwell's original 1865 dynamical theory paper and some additional commentaries.

Here's what Barrett - a nationally known electrodynamicist and one of the co-founders of ultrawideband radar - has to say about Maxwell's theory:

"In the case of electromagnetism, the theory was first simplified before being frozen. Maxwell expressed electromagnetism in the algebra of quaternions and made the electromagnetic potential the centerpiece of his theory. In 1881 Heaviside replaced the electromagnetic potential field by force fields as the centerpiece of electromagnetic theory. According to him, the electromagnetic potential field was arbitrary and needed to be "assassinated" (sic). A few years later there was a great debate between Heaviside and Tate about the relative merits of vector analysis and quaternions. The result was the realization that there was no need for the greater physical insights provided by quaternions if the theory was purely local, and vector analysis became commonplace.

The vast applications of electromagnetic theory since then were made using vector analysis. Although generations of very effective students were trained using vector analysis, more might be learned physically by returning, if not to quaternions, to other mathematical formulations in certain well-defined circumstances. As examples, since the time when the theoretical design of electromagnetism was frozen, gauge theory has been invented and brought to maturity and topology and geometry have been introduced to field theory. Although most persons view their subject matter through the filter of the mathematical tools in which they are trained, the best mathematical techniques for a specific analysis depend upon the best match between the algebraic logic and the underpinning physical dynamics of a theoretical system." [Terence W. Barrett and Dale M. Grimes, Preface, p. vii-viii, in Advanced Electromagnetism: Foundations, Theory and Applications, Terence W. Barrett and Dale M. Grimes (eds.), World Scientific, Singapore, 1995.]

Maxwell died in 1879 of stomach cancer.

In the 1880s, several scientists - Heaviside, Gibbs, Hertz etc. - strongly assaulted the Maxwellian theory and dramatically reduced it, creating vector algebra in the process. Then circa 1892 Lorentz arbitrarily symmetrized the already seriously constrained Heaviside-Maxwell equations, just to get simpler equations easier to solve algebraically, and thus to dramatically reduce the need for numerical methods (which were a "real bear" before the computer). But that symmetrization also arbitrarily discarded all asymmetrical Maxwellian systems - the very ones of interest to us today if we are seriously interested in usable EM energy from the vacuum.

So anyone seriously interested in potential systems that accept and use additional EM energy from the vacuum, must first violate the Lorentz symmetry condition, else all his efforts are doomed to failure a priori.

We point out that quaternion algebra has a higher group symmetry than either vector algebra or tensor algebra, and hence it reveals much more EM phenomenology and dynamics than does EM in vector or tensor form.

Today, the tremendously crippled Maxwell-Heaviside equations - symmetrized by Lorentz - are taught in all our universities in the electrical engineering (EE) department. Note that the EE professors still dutifully symmetrize the equations, following Lorentz, and thus they continue to arbitrarily discard all asymmetrical Maxwellian systems. Hence none of them has the foggiest notion of how to go about developing an "energy from the vacuum" system, which is asymmetrical a priori.

The resulting classical electromagnetics and electrical engineering (CEM/EE) model taught in all our university EE departments also contains very serious falsities. Most of modern physics, such as special and general relativity, quantum field theory, etc., has been developed since the 1880s and 1890s fixating of the symmetrized Maxwell-Heaviside equations. A paper gathering together a listing these serious flaws and giving proper citations, is T. E. Bearden, "Errors and Omissions in the CEM/EE Model," available for free downloading at http://www.cheniere.org/techpapers/CEM%20Errors%20-%20final%20paper%20complete%20w%20longer%20abstract4.doc .

This paper also shows a magnetic Wankel engine (suppressed from the world market) that can be built by any electrical engineering department or physics department, and then tested at COP>1.0 to one's heart's content. The magnetic Wankel system is also easily close-looped for self-powering (where all its input energy is freely furnished by the vacuum, and the operator need furnish none of the input energy at all - thus providing fuel free, continuous use of the energy from the vacuum, at will.

In the hard physics literature, rigorous proof that eliminating the arbitrary Lorentz condition provides systems having free additional energy currents from the vacuum is given by M. W. Evans et al., "Classical Electrodynamics without the Lorentz Condition: Extracting Energy from the Vacuum," Physica Scripta, Vol. 61, 2000, p. 513-517. Evans' own O(3) model is very advanced, and it also directly specifies mechanisms for an EM system receiving and using excess energy freely from the vacuum.

Fortunately, today some scientists have turned again to higher group symmetry algebras in which EM is expressed. These higher group symmetry electrodynamics theories then show far more EM phenomenology than the standard CEM/EE model used in electrical power engineering.

Anyway, that gives you a brief overview of the Maxwell theory, and the rather sharp curtailment of it that has become the accepted but very crippled model for electrical engineering. Specifically, it is that crippled model and its continued propagation and use that is directly responsible for the increasing energy crisis worldwide, and our dependence on conventional fuels etc.

We do point out that the original Maxwell quaternion and quaternion-like theory of 1865 also contained errors, by the physics that has been learned since then. One of those errors was Maxwell's assumption of the material ether, an ether which was falsified experimentally in 1887 after Maxwell was already dead. But the present CEM/EE model still assumes that same old material ether, more than a century later.

Also, after Maxwell published the first edition of his famous "Treatise.", not much happened. He was soundly criticized for using the quaternion approach, and even his own editor chastised him rather unmercifully for it. His attachment to the potentials as primary was also roundly criticized, since almost all theorists of the day believed that the potentials were simply mathematical conveniences having no physical reality whatsoever. To them, the force fields were the only physical reality in Maxwell's theory. Today, of course, we know in the quantum theory that it is the potentials that are primary, and the fields are derived from changes in the potentials.

The history of Maxwell's famous treatise is as follows: The publications are James Clerk Maxwell, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1873, Second Edition 1881 (Maxwell was already dead), Third Edition, Volumes 1 and 2, 1891. Foreword to the second edition was by Niven, who finished the work as Maxwell had dramatically rewritten the first nine chapters, much new matter added and the former contents rearranged and simplified. Maxwell died before finishing the rest of the second edition. The rest of the second edition is therefore largely a reprint from the first edition. The third edition edited by J. J. Thomson was published in 1892, by Oxford University Press, and later was published unabridged, Dover Publications, New York, 1954. J. J. Thomson finished the publication of the third edition, and wrote a "Supplementary Volume" with his notes. A summary of Maxwell's equations is given in Vol. II, Chapter IX of the third edition. However, Maxwell had gone (in his second edition) to some pains to reduce the quaternion expressions himself, and not require the students to know the calculus of quaternions (so stated on p. 257). We note that Maxwell did not finish the second edition, but died before that. He actually had no hand at all in the third edition as to any further changes. The Second edition (unfinished by Maxwell) was later finished by Niven by simply adding the remaining material from the previous first edition approved by Maxwell to that part that Maxwell had revised. The printing of the first nine chapters of the third edition was already underway when J. J. Thomson was assigned to finish the editing of the manuscript.

Indeed, as an example of a major error in the present CEM/EE model, we know today that matter is a component of force, and therefore the EM force fields prescribed in matter-free space by Maxwell and his followers (and by all our electrical engineering departments today), do not exist. The EM field in massless space is force-free, and is a "condition of space" itself, as pointed out by Feynman in his three volumes of sophomore physics. Specifically, speaking of the electric field Feynman states:

".the existence of the positive charge, in some sense, distorts, or creates a "condition" in space, so that when we put the negative charge in, it feels a force. This potentiality for producing a force is called an electric field." [Richard P. Feynman, Robert B. Leighton, and Matthew Sands, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, Vol. 1, 1964, p. 2-4].

He further states:

"We may think of E(x, y, z, t) and B(x, y, z, t) as giving the forces that would be experienced at the time t by a charge located at (x, y, z), with the condition that placing the charge there did not disturb the positions or motion of all the other charges responsible for the fields." [ibid, vol. II, p. 1-3.]

But the CEM/EE texts still teach that old force field in empty space. However, Jackson - a superb classical electrodynamicist of international renown - at least points out that this dramatic error in the model is just ignored. Jackson states:

"Most classical electrodynamicists continue to adhere to the notion that the EM force field exists as such in the vacuum, but do admit that physically measurable quantities such as force somehow involve the product of charge and field." [J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Second Edition, Wiley, 1975, p. 249].

Jackson does admit it and point out that this logical problem is just ignored, for which he is to be highly commended. Most textbooks simply do not even discuss it.

So at his death in 1879, Maxwell had already laboriously simplified some 80% of his "Treatise" himself, to comply with the severe demands of the publisher. The second edition of his book thus has the first 80% considerably changed by Maxwell himself. The third edition contained the same theory as the second edition essentially, but just with additional commentary. It is this third edition that is widely available and usually referred to as "Maxwell's theory".

Today, there is still a widespread belief that the third edition represents Maxwell's original EM work and theory, in pristine form just as created originally by Maxwell.

It doesn't.

Best wishes,

Tom Bearden



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"James Clerk Maxwell's original EM work and theory" | Login/Create an Account | 19 comments | Search Discussion
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Re: James Clerk Maxwell's original EM work and theory (Score: 1)
by jeremygaul on Monday, December 12, 2005 @ 18:36:51 GMT
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Hi, I have a post on my web blog of a paper with the complete original Maxwell equations before they were reduced.

Here is a link to the post - http://www.jeremygaul.com/content/view/64/9/ [www.jeremygaul.com]

I have been interested in this area of physics for quite a while and was surprised at how hard it was to locate this particular information. You would think that with all the interest in FE and physics at least some would have posted these online. This paper is not mine but mirrored from another source in case that is lost.

These are in the original format and the subject is on the the notation of these equations. You would need understanding of quaternions and adv calc(not to mention physics) to understand the them.

Have Fun,
Jeremy Gaul

Re: James Clerk Maxwell's original EM work and theory (Score: 1)
by ElectroDynaCat on Monday, December 12, 2005 @ 19:24:28 GMT
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Maxwell originated those equations with the firm belief in the luminferous aether. Quaterions were not only equations, they described the mathematical character of the properties of the constituients of the aether, properties that bear a resemblance to the electron-positron flux that later became the "Dirac Sea".

When the aether bit the dust with Michelsons interferometer findings in the early 20th century, those forms of Maxwells equations were modified to get rid of that particular form of representation.

Re: James Clerk Maxwell's original EM work and theory (Score: 1)
by lanca on Tuesday, December 13, 2005 @ 18:07:40 GMT
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P=(Bv2xq)/(8x pi x981000)

How many physicians,"physics" teachers,engineers will think about/visualize3D this Maxwell theory formula ?

A little help: this,in reality,as motor (for example used by the german inventor Wolfgang Klinsing) included in a concept like
the "Trinitymotors"-concept !(Motor,Generator,batterypack) 

Or as motor for friction-heaters et cetera...!

Attention:The Biot-Savart -force amplification-law effect inside !!!

Re: James Clerk Maxwell's original EM work and theory (Score: 1)
by Koen on Wednesday, December 14, 2005 @ 04:31:16 GMT
(User Info | Send a Message) http://no.nl/tesla

are Bearden's remarks CORRECT with respect to Maxwell's original equations and the 'modern' vector form of Maxwell's theory ?????

For instance, Andre Waser and Gerhard Bruhn came to the conclusion that there are OTHER differences between the original and modern version than expressed by Tom Bearden. So I doubt Bearden's conclusion, will come back to this later.

The MM experiment did not disprove Aether, it is still alive and well... (Score: 1)
by jeremygaul on Tuesday, January 03, 2006 @ 19:27:51 GMT
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Here is some interesting facts on the MM experiment.

qoute from - http://www.padrak.com/ine/NEN_4_8_1.html [www.padrak.com]

"Kaku says the aether has never been measured in our laboratories and that its existence was disproved by the Michelson-Morley Experiment. The fact is that Michelson did not perform the experiment to test or refute the existence of the aether. He lived another 44 years after performing that experiment and believed in the aether to his dying day. He was trying to sense the Earth's motion through the aether, but, since standing waves developed by mirror reflection had not been discovered when the experiment was planned, he had not allowed for that to affect the result observed. In fact, the aether energy stored in those standing waves, being trapped in the mirror system, makes the wave motion appear to be locked to the frame of reference of the mirrors, and not the aether as expected. The aether certainly was detected in the laboratory when Michelson found he could detect the Earth's rotation relative to that non-rotating aether by his light wave interference experiments jointly with Gale in 1925. The aether was detected some years earlier by Sagnac in France and is detected in modern navigation technology by the ring laser gyro. How can the speed of a laser beam traveling around a closed path inside an optical instrument detect rotation of that instrument if the beam is not keeping a fixed speed relative to something inside that instrument that does not share its rotation? That something is the aether! No amount of book learning or mathematics can avoid that simple truth, and even though the word aether is seen as something magical, it is that something that delivers free energy once we have decoded the combination of the magnetic lock which restrains its release. Note also, that the aether reveals its existence when we have rotation and we have rotation in the Adams motor."End QouteAlso the Questions at http://www.mountainman.com.au/aeth_faq.htm [www.mountainman.com.au]Or http://freespace.virgin.net/ch.thompson1/History/forgotten.htm [freespace.virgin.net]
or here is an article about Maurice Allais - Nobel Laureate From 21st Century Science & Technology Magazine
http://www.21stcenturysciencetech.com/highlights/hilt08.html [www.21stcenturysciencetech.com]

Here is a qoute from Infinite Energy Magazine
http://www.infinite-energy.com/iemagazine/issue59/adissidentview.html [www.infinite-energy.com]

"We will banish the term "aether" in due course, but let’s take a closer look at this much maligned substance, given its historical importance to the whole question of the speed of light. To be certain, the 1887 Michelson-Morley (M-M) null-result disproved the concept of an unentrained aether. An unentrained aether would be totally unaffected by a gravitational field. The Earth would glide effortlessly through it without dragging any of it along, by virtue of the Earth’s gravitational pull. From a scientist’s perspective, an unentrained aether would come blowing through the laboratory like a hurricane with a velocity of the Earth’s speed of revolution around the Sun (30 km/sec). And like the passing eye of a hurricane, the aether-wind would reverse direction twice each day as the Earth rotated on its axis. At 0.01% of c the M-M experiment was certainly sensitive enough to detect such an aether-wind, and a small non-null result was found, but not to the level expected for an unentrained aether."This article goes on to explain how a entrained aether exists and was proven by Dayton Miller as well as several other theories.Well have fun... there is much more out there to read about this as well as a modern reproduction of the Dayton Miller Experiments as well as the MM ones.
LaterJeremy Gaul www.jeremygaul.com [www.jeremygaul.com]

Re: James Clerk Maxwell's original EM work and theory (Score: 1)
by FDT on Friday, June 16, 2006 @ 09:27:32 GMT
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Regarding your query, I have just written an article which should help you to get a clearer picture of Maxwell's original work. In section V of this article, I have listed and discussed Maxwell's original eight equations. The article can be found on this web link,


In modern texbooks, we have lost Maxwell's vortex cells which were also his dielectric luminiferous medium. We have lost his original derivation of displacement current which is based on the existence of a dielectric medium. We have lost the connection between the Coriolis force and the Lorentz force. It is also interesting that the Lorentz force sits outside Maxwell's equations today, as if it had never been equation (D) of the original eight in his 1864 paper 'A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field'.

The 1861 paper 'On Physical Lines of Force' is now available in the ZP Energy downloads section.

Yours sincerely
David Tombe


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